Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Coding of non-text data

Pennington, Diane



Luke Sloan

Anabel Quan-Haase


This chapter overviews the domain of “non-text” data that can be found on social media, such as videos and photographs. It then outlines research methods that can be applied to analysing and coding these non-text documents and their associated texts. These methods include content analysis, document analysis, compositional interpretation, musical analysis, cultural studies, visual sociology, visual anthropology, semiotic analysis, iconography/iconology, discourse analysis, visual social semiotics, and multimodal research. The chapter concludes with a call for future development of methods to continue advancing research in this emerging and essential area of social science.

Publication Date Jan 31, 2017
Deposit Date Feb 3, 2023
Publisher SAGE Publications
Book Title The Sage Handbook of Social Media Research Methods
Chapter Number 15
ISBN 9781473916326
Keywords non-text data; social media; research methods
Publisher URL