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An electromyographic study on the effects of slope and distance constraints on forearm muscle activity during golf putting

Finnie, Kyle P.; Valentin, Stephanie; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S.; Ugbolue, Ukadike C.

Authors

Kyle P. Finnie

Yaodong Gu

Julien S. Baker

Ukadike C. Ugbolue



Abstract

Introduction
Golf mechanics incorporates specific coordinated movements of the body together with controlled low-velocity movements with precision to dictate performance [1]. Golf putting involves mainly upper body limb movement that has been likened to the movement of a pendulum [2,3]. Despite putting accounting for approximately 40% of strikes during a round [4], there are still a limited number of studies that have investigated golf putting [5]. Therefore, this study aims to discover if slope and distance constraints are influenced by electromyographic muscle activity within the flexor and extensor forearm muscles during golf putting.

Methods
Following ethical approval from the University of the West of Scotland, six amateur golfers were tested in a laboratory controlled environment during a putting task from two different slope constraints; uphill and downhill and two distances; 3 feet and 7 feet. The participants’ average muscle activity patterns in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscles of both lead and trail arms were calculated using surface electromyography (EMG). Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were applied.

Results
The descriptive statistics indicate mean forearm muscle EMG differences with respect to slope and distance constraints (Figure 1). There were no statistically significant differences in mean muscle activity between each transmitter at 3 feet versus 7 feet (P=0.265 for uphill and P=0.252 for downhill). However, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001).

Discussion
Even though no significant differences between the golf putting distances in relation to the slope constraints were found, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001). This outcome suggests that distance and slope constraints do not have a direct effect on forearm muscle activity. Information from this study could be used by amateur golfers to assist with putting performance.

Citation

Finnie, K. P., Valentin, S., Gu, Y., Baker, J. S., & Ugbolue, U. C. (2018, July). An electromyographic study on the effects of slope and distance constraints on forearm muscle activity during golf putting. Paper presented at 8th World Conference of Biomechanics (WCB 2018), Dublin, Ireland

Presentation Conference Type Conference Paper (unpublished)
Conference Name 8th World Conference of Biomechanics (WCB 2018)
Start Date Jul 8, 2018
End Date Jul 12, 2018
Deposit Date Feb 8, 2023
Publisher URL http://wcb2018.com/