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On the Attitudes towards Automation in Determining the Intention to Use Automated Buses in Scotland

Nanethan Rahim, Anshamol; Fonzone, Achille; Fountas, Grigorios; Downey, Lucy


Anshamol Nanethan Rahim


The vehicle automation technology is expected to bring significant benefits to transit systems. In order for public transportation to continue being a viable mobility alternative to private modes, automated technologies are anticipated to be actively utilized in the future. Investigating public perceptions and their determinants at an early stage is important to inform policies that will support the acceptance and future adoption of automated buses. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors that affect intentions to use automated buses using an extended version of Technology Acceptance model. To that end, survey data were collected from bus users in Scotland. An Exploratory Factor Analysis was conducted to identify latent attitudinal constructs potentially influencing intentions to use automated buses. Considering the ordinal nature of the dependent variable, ordered models were estimated using SPSS. Age, gender, and experience with automated vehicle technologies were found to be crucial factors in the absence of attitudinal constructs. Young males with experience of using or seeing automated vehicle technologies are more likely to use automated buses at the early stage. The fear regarding their navigation on roads, the perceived usefulness, enjoyment of using the system, trust, perceived safety, and security influence how early one will adopt automated buses. Unlike the expectations, perceived ease of use (PEU) did not emerge as significant. The socio-demographic variables lost their predictive power when used along with attitudinal latent variables. The findings of this study highlight the importance for policy interventions to increase public awareness about automated buses.


Nanethan Rahim, A., Fonzone, A., Fountas, G., & Downey, L. (in press). On the Attitudes towards Automation in Determining the Intention to Use Automated Buses in Scotland. Transportation research record,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 10, 2023
Deposit Date Jan 16, 2023
Print ISSN 0361-1981
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Automated Buses, Technology Acceptance, Intentions, Ordered Model; Attitudes