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Detection of Signals in MC–CDMA Using a Novel Iterative Block Decision Feedback Equalizer

Bagadi, Kalapraveen; Ravikumar, CV; Sathish, K.; Alibakhshikenari, Mohammad; Virdee, Bal S.; Kouhalvandi, Lida; Olan-Nuñez, Karen N.; Pau, Giovanni; See, Chan Hwang; Dayoub, Iyad; Livreri, Patrizia; Aïssa, Sonia; Falcone, Francisco; Limiti, Ernesto


Kalapraveen Bagadi

CV Ravikumar

K. Sathish

Mohammad Alibakhshikenari

Bal S. Virdee

Lida Kouhalvandi

Karen N. Olan-Nuñez

Giovanni Pau

Iyad Dayoub

Patrizia Livreri

Sonia Aïssa

Francisco Falcone

Ernesto Limiti


This paper presents a technique to mitigate multiple access interference (MAI) in multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) wireless communications systems. Although under normal circumstances the MC-CDMA system can achieve high spectral efficiency and resistance towards inter symbol interference (ISI) however when exposed to substantial nonlinear distortion the issue of MAI manifests. Such distortion results when the power amplifiers are driven into saturation or when the transmit signal experiences extreme adverse channel conditions. The proposed technique uses a modified iterative block decision feedback equalizer (IB-DFE) that uses a minimal mean square error (MMSE) receiver in the feed-forward path to nullify the residual interference from the IB-DFE receiver. The received signal is re-filtered in an iterative process to significantly improve the MC-CDMA system’s performance. The effectiveness of the proposed modified IB-DFE technique in MC-CDMA systems has been analysed under various harsh nonlinear conditions, and the results of this analysis presented here confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique to outperform conventional methodologies in terms of the bit error rate (BER) and lesser computational complexity.


Bagadi, K., Ravikumar, C., Sathish, K., Alibakhshikenari, M., Virdee, B. S., Kouhalvandi, L., …Limiti, E. (2022). Detection of Signals in MC–CDMA Using a Novel Iterative Block Decision Feedback Equalizer. IEEE Access, 10, 105674-105684.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 28, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 3, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Sep 28, 2022
Publicly Available Date Oct 3, 2022
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Pages 105674-105684
Keywords CDMA, OFDM, MAI, MMSE, IB-DFE, Maximum Likelihood (ML)
Public URL


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