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Agroecology as Catalyst for Smallholder Farming Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change: Caribbean Region

Roop, Ramgopaul; Weaver, Miles; Fonseca, Ana Paula; Matouq, Mohammed


Ramgopaul Roop

Mohammed Matouq


Walter Leal Filho

Noé Aguilar-Rivera

Bruno Borsari

Paulo R.B. de Brito

Baltazar Andrade Guerra


Agriculture production emits approximately 29% of greenhouse gases, contributing to climatic changes. These changes increase pests and disease outbreaks according to the frequency and severity of droughts and floods, which results in crop failures and high livestock mortality. The phenomenal global impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic are creating new standards for the continued support of human development and well-being, due to these rapid changes. SDG 2 identified sustainable agriculture and the role of smallholder farmers as integral to addressing food and nutrition issues. Yet, these farmers comprise a vulnerable social group, especially in developing countries, due to their limited adaptive capacity. Despite possessing a wealth of traditional knowledge, smallholder farmers’ marginalized input resources, capital, assets, and technical information impede their adaptive ability and resilience to climate change.

This case study examines smallholder farming as a catalyst for nature-based solutions utilizing agroecology concepts in coping with climate change. It provides an empirical account of an Agroecological farm in Trinidad, which The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) presented as a model on its Agroecology Knowledge Hub. The research consists of an exploratory qualitative case study analysis, which provides an in-depth holistic view of the problems of implementing sustainable agriculture and the innovative solutions based on the model farm of resilient agriculture, during the past 25 years, in the Caribbean. The qualitative method used documentary analysis, which contributed to building the narrative between the actors involved.


Roop, R., Weaver, M., Fonseca, A. P., & Matouq, M. (2023). Agroecology as Catalyst for Smallholder Farming Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change: Caribbean Region. In W. L. Filho, N. Aguilar-Rivera, B. Borsari, P. R. de Brito, & B. Andrade Guerra (Eds.), SDGs in the Americas and Caribbean Region (405-427). Springer.

Acceptance Date Dec 16, 2021
Online Publication Date Sep 1, 2023
Publication Date 2023
Deposit Date Apr 29, 2022
Publisher Springer
Pages 405-427
Series Title Implementing the UN Sustainable Development Goals – Regional Perspectives
Series ISSN 2731-5576
Book Title SDGs in the Americas and Caribbean Region
ISBN 978-3-031-16016-5
Keywords agroecology, smallholder farming, building resilience, mitigate, adapt, climate change, food and nutrition security
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